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High-Dose Metformin Plus Temozolomide Shows Increased Anti-tumor Effects in Glioblastoma In Vitro and In Vivo Compared with Monotherapy.

Al's Comment:

 Very interesting.  In our virtual trial, we have 10 glioblastoma patients who tried the combination and they did a lot better, on average, than those who took Temozolomide without Metformin.


Posted on: 01/17/2018

. Cancer Res Treat. 2018 Jan 10. doi: 10.4143/crt.2017.466. [Epub ahead of print]
High-Dose Metformin Plus Temozolomide Shows Increased Anti-tumor Effects in Glioblastoma In Vitro and In Vivo Compared with Monotherapy.
Lee JE1, Lim JH2, Hong YK3, Yang SH1.
 
Author information:
 
1
    Department of Neurosurgery, St. Vincent's Hospital, Cell Death Disease Research Center, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea.
2
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
3
    Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
 
Abstract
Purpose:
 
The purpose of the study is to investigate the efficacy of combined treatment with temozolomide (TMZ) and metformin for glioblastoma (GBM) in vitro and in vivo.
Materials and Methods:
 
We investigated the efficacy of combined treatment with TMZ and metformin using cell viability and apoptosis assays. A GBM orthotopic mice model was established by inoculation of 5x105 U87 cells and treated with metformin, TMZ, and the combination for 4 weeks. Western blotting and immunofluorescence of tumor specimens were analyzed to investigate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and AKT pathway.
Results:
 
The combination of TMZ and metformin showed higher cytotoxicity than single agents in U87, U251, and A172 cell lines. A combination of high-dose metformin and TMZ showed the highest apoptotic activity. The combination of TMZ and metformin enhanced AMPK phosphorylation and inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation, AKT phosphorylation and p53 expression. The median survival of each group was 43.6, 55.2, 53.2, 65.2, and 71.3 days for control, metformin treatment (2 mg/25 g/day or 10 mg/25 g/day), TMZ treatment (15 mg/kg/day), combination treatment with low-dose metformin and TMZ, and combination treatment with high-dose metformin and TMZ, respectively. Expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) was significantly decreased in tumor specimens treated with metformin and TMZ.
Conclusion:
 
The combination of metformin and TMZ was superior to monotherapy using metformin or TMZ in terms of cell viability in vitro and survival in vivo. The combination of high-dose metformin and TMZ inhibited FASN expression in an orthotopic model. Inhibition of FASN might be a potential therapeutic target of GBM.

 


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